As does that of of the Treasury Department. Hiss is one of the most brilliant young men in the country, not to do more injury than necessary to Mr. In 1929, he received his law degree from , where he was a protégé of , the future justice. From approximately 1939 to their removal in November, 1948, the envelope containing the documents and film was stored in a dumbwaiter shaft in a Baltimore house. Sayre, who was former President Woodrow Wilson's son-in-law.
He denied Chambers's accusations and dramatically questioned Chambers himself in a vain attempt to clear his name. The members were ready to pack it in and spend the rest of the summer back home. Communism and radical leftism were, in 1930s America, prominent and respectable to an extent that now appears incomprehensible. Denying then that Hiss's activities included espionage, Chambers claimed instead that Hiss's role, as that of the other individuals whom he concurrently identified as Communists, was to promote Communist infiltration of the federal bureaucracy in order to advance Communist policy. Hiss, who also testified before the grand jury, claimed the materials were either fakes or had come from someone else. The Hiss defense decided not to use this information, however, because Roth had been prosecuted for obscenity. Indeed, much of the duration and bitterness of the debate about Hiss's guilt was the result of political battles that, even when he was convicted, were almost 20 years old.
Where were the papers between 1938 and 1948? In 1957 he published In the Court of Public Opinion, a book challenging in detail the prosecution's case against him, and maintaining the typewritten documents traced to his typewriter had been forged. With some reluctance, the Committee voted to make Nixon chair of a subcommittee that would seek to determine who was lying, Hiss or Chambers, at least on the question of whether they knew one another. In 1944, Hiss was named Director of the Office of Special Political Affairs, a policy-making entity devoted to planning for post-war international organizations, Hiss served as executive secretary of the , which drew up plans for the future. Alger Hiss Alger Hiss testifying Born 1904-11-11 November 11, 1904 , Died November 15, 1996 1996-11-15 aged 92 , Education high school Spouse Priscilla Fansler Hobson 1903—1984 m. He was involved in the establishment of the both as a and U. It also fueled a passion for anti-Communist investigations and legislation that preoccupied Congress for the next several years.
Therefore, according to Hiss, the typed Pumpkin Papers were fakes. You did or did not? Weinstein and Vassiliev tell so many stories, several of which are already well known, that the book sometimes has an unfocused and sensational feel to it and the reader wonders why they seem compelled to go over old ground. Next came a leading role in the establishment of the United Nations, appointment to the administration of the U. These developments also have significant implications for the intelligence professional today. Parts of the American government had conclusive evidence of his guilt, but they never told.
Hiss rose steadily at State. Like Frankfurter, who wrote a book about the case, and many prominent liberals of the day, Hiss maintained that Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted unjustly. The Eastman Kodak source called back and corrected himself. Chambers had previously testified under oath that Hiss had never been a Communist or a spy, and Chambers would admit, under oath, to other instances where he had committed perjury under oath. His sensational and unfounded charges launched a red-baiting career that would make his name forever synonymous with witch-hunting demagoguery. In January 1950, he was found guilty on both counts of perjury and received two concurrent five-year sentences, of which he eventually served three and a half years. Term Joseph McCarthy Definition junior senator from Wisconsin who charged hundreds of Americans with working for or aiding the Soviet Union during the cold War; he had no evidence but terrorized people from 1950 to 1954, ruining their lives and careers with his reckless charges until Senate censured him in December 1954.
In contrast, during his trial, Alger Hiss, an employee of the State Department, was accused having obtained only non-military information, and the papers he was accused of having passed to the Soviets on a regular basis were non-military, State Department documents. He spent the next two decades working as a salesman while writing books and giving lectures. Hoover put a wiretap on Hiss's home phone and had him and his wife investigated and tailed for the next two years. The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Archives For those interested in the Hiss case, the 1980s proved to be a time of waiting.
Although no reason exists to doubt the accuracy of Weinstein's and Vassiliev's accounts, other researchers would have difficulty confirming their research or building on it. Catlett confirmed that he received the Woodstock typewriter from Hiss, but could not remember the date he took possession of the machine. After plowing through the data, however, Weinstein did what no previous Hiss defender had done: he changed his mind. After his stint for the Hiss side, Schmahl defected to the prosecution team. The papers date to the time of Chambers's decision to leave the Communist Party.
In contrast, the defense presented the slender, handsome, well-connected Hiss as a model American who would never stoop to treason. Chambers joined the Communist Party in 1925, later claiming he thought that Communism would save a dying world. His various efforts at exoneration—whether unsuccessfully petitioning for a new trial in the 1950s or filing a coram nobis suit in the 1970s—proved unsuccessful. Tanenhaus's writing, too, is excellent, and he manages to bring a sense of drama and suspense to a well-worn story. For threats outside the U. His career in law and public service was ruined. Hiss's expertise in the area of international organization resulted in his participation as a rather low-level functionary at the 1943 Dumbarton Oaks Conference as well as his selection as a member of the U.
The Pumpkin Papers played a decisive role in the Hiss trials. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. At both trials, a key to the prosecution case was testimony from expert witnesses stating that identifying characteristics of the typed Baltimore documents matched samples typed on a typewriter owned by the Hisses at the time of his alleged espionage work with Chambers. He claimed that Chambers was a psychopathic personality prone to chronic lying. Alger Hiss was famous because of the high profile and publicity his case attracted with its dramatic elements, compelling characters, accusations of espionage and treason and so many ambiguities and inconsistencies to leave the issue of the guilt or innocence of Alger Hiss in doubt for decades. For those on the Right, Hiss represented the sort of soft-headed Eastern intellectuals who could not be trusted in matters of national security. Office of Special Political Affairs, and, in 1946, election to the presidency of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.