After the war, he was knighted and made permanent secretary to the. It was strongly urged by some members of the sub-committee who were asked to advise on the rates of benefit that would ensure adequate subsistence. These surveys covered topics of poverty as well as old age and low birth rates. No one is likely to challenge this, but the special maternity benefit must be. There is here an issue of principle and practice on which strong arguments can be advanced on each side by reasonable men. Thofigh many changes and improvements have been made in the business, there is no sign of a radical change, and no prospect of any general large reduction of administrative costs.
It is essential that men should enter them and desirable, therefore, that they should be able to do so with the assurance of special provision against their risks. Incidentally, though this is an altogether minor reason for the proposal, such a condition is the most effective way of unmasking the relatively few persons who may be suspected of malingering, who have perhaps some concealed means of earning which they are combining with an appearance of unemploy- ment. But during the past 40 years there has been a strong trend away from the Poor Law and in favour of contributory State insurance and assistance administered on a national basis. Industrial assurance as now conducted is pushed in the interests of the Industrial Life Offices and their agents as sellers of insurance to a point beyond the interests of the public as buyers of insurance. Of the pensionable employments which are excepted, other than the civil service, the two largest are the railway service and local government service.
To prevent interruption or destruction of earning power from leading to want, it is necessary to improve the present scheme s of social insurance in three directions : by e xtension o f scope t o cover persons now k. Provisionally it is suggested that no person retired on pension would be permitted to hold an occupation card in respect of a shop, small holding, fishing boat, etc. There is also some possibility of reducing or postponing expenditure on. She deliberately and openly flouted this rule. On 30 January 1943 Beveridge wrote to Churchill asking whether he might meet with him, to discuss his future role in government and also social security.
In any measure of social policy in which regard is had to facts, the great majority of married women must be regarded as occupied on work which is vital though unpaid, without which their husbands could not do their paid work and without which the nation could not continue. Widowhood is now dealt with by the grant of a small unconditional pension taking no account of real needs, inadequate in many cases and superfluous in other cases, as is the unconditional pension for old age. It both justifies and requires post- ponement of payment of full subsistence pensions as of right and thus gives time — а for the national income of. On all grounds of principle and of practice, the basic provision made by compulsory insurance for retirement pensions should be uniform for all citizens in all regions. With the limitation of scope hitherto, it was felt necessary to allow persons to qualify for pensions by a relatively short period of contribution of five years as employees : this gave temptation to the making of factitious contracts of employment with relatives for the last five years of working age. In 1937, Beveridge was appointed of. There is aU the difference in the world between a permanent system of pensions subject to means test and a transitional system of supplementation of rising contributory pensions, such as is suggested here.
With these preliminary investigations into the progress of welfare from the British realm to the present day the essay now proceeds to examine the Beveridge and Workfare approaches. Third, the future course of rOnts is, if possible, even more problematical than that of prices generaUy, and may be different in different parts of the country, according to the housing pohcy of the Local Authority. They include, also, retention of differentiation between deaths of breadwinners due to industrial accident or disease and sucii deaths due to other causes, by providing industrial grant in the former case, subject to further consideration of the amoimt, allocation and method of payment of this grant in the light of the general insurance proposals. It provided a summary of principles necessary to banish poverty and 'want' from Britain - Beveridge's mantra throughout the report was 'Abolition of want'. These figures depend upon the assumptions made as to the future of birth- rates and death-rates, and the results will be different if these assumptions are not realised. Three in particular in the list of major changes in para.
Could be tackled by state insurance against sickness, unemployment and old age. Jews and Muslims were being more and more persecuted. First, pensions, both contributory and supplementary, before the age of 70 are limited practically to persons in Class I. During this time, more than 400,000 soldiers took over Algeria and Morocco under the strong command of general Dwight D. Beveridge refused, but declared an interest in organising British manpower in wartime Beveridge had come to favour a strong system of centralised planning. Making of pensions, other than industrial, conditional on retirement from work and rising in value with each year of continued contribution after the minimum age of retire- ment, that is to say, after 65 for men and 60 for women.
If the proposal made is accepted in principle — of including provision for industrial accident and disease within the general framework of social insurance but treating it in some ways differently — several important questions will remain for discussion and settlement. It is icluded, therefore, as one of the bracketed proposals of the Report. There is no valid objection, either on the ground of equity or on the ground that a means test may discourage' thrift, to postponing introduction of adequate contributory pensions for a substantial period of transition, during which needs are met by pensions subject to means test. Contribution conditions will not apply to claims for disability benefit arising out of industrial accident or disease. Homeless went to hostel which lost more money. Ail the principal causes of interruption or loss of earnings are now the subject r of schemes of social insurance.
He became, for the first time, not a Whitehall expert, but a national figure, in some way the harbinger of the kind of postwar world people wanted to see. The abolition of the Poor Law will still leave in the- hands of Local Authorities the important and growing task of organising and maintaining institutions of various kinds, for treatment and welfare. The Anomalies Regulations, however, as they stand are open to the objection that they penalise the woman who marries, as compared with a woman who lives as a wife, without giving any compensating advantage to the former. In preparing the Report, the question arose naturally as to how far it was necessary at this stage to enter into details, and whether it might not be preferable to deal with principles only. Every such man, whether working under contract of service or on his own account or as an employer, whatever his occupation, will be able to qualify for pension for himself and for his wife at the full basic rate, equivalent to unemployment or disability benefit, and to add to this by postponing his retirement. There are disadvantages in the present system of providing for the results of industrial accident and disease which could and should be eliminated by change to a new system. There is at present renewed global interest in the merits and demerits of the policies of the welfare state.
Some of the other questions named above are dealt with in Part V. The unity was most clearly expressed in their readiness to accept the war sacrifices imposed by and his coalition government. Plan for Social Security set out in this Report is built upon these principles. It made possible full utilisation in this field of the magnificent pioneer work of the Friendly Societies. In so far as industries depend upon one another, both employers and employees in each industry depend upon all other industries.