The next day the Viceroy in a Press Conference announced the probable date 15th August for the transfer of power on the following points: 1. Hopes for Pakistan Strong support for the idea of an independent Pakistan came from large Muslim landowning families in the Punjab and Sindh, who saw it as an opportunity to prosper within a captive market free from competition. The theory of one nation had been carried along too far and that it was nothing but a far fetched dream. Immediately Jinnah shouted against this proposal of Frontier Gandhi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. It recommended the separation of Burma from British India and the establishment of Sindh and Orissa as separate states.
In declining to cooperate with the League in 1937, the Congress missed a golden opportunity to forge a united political alliance in India. Congress policy of strengthening India: The Congress felt that there was one alternative to get ride of this problem and that was the partition of India 5. This was seen by the Muslim elite as an attack on their culture. He first proposed Hindu-Musim unity but later proposed the creation of a separate Muslim state. The estimates of casualties are 3,000 dead and 17,000 injured. The Red Shirt then boycotted the referendum. His goal in life was independence of India but he was unwilling to share power with Jinnah to achieve it.
The 572 princely states were given the option of acceding to either India or Pakistan keeping in view their geography and the wishes of their people. With the country descending further into chaos, Mountbatten reluctantly agreed to the formation of two separate states. This struggle has raged since Islam spread into the Indian Peninsula in the early 700s. Gerald Cubitt The The second great structural component of India, the Indo-Gangetic Plain also called the North Indian Plain , lies between the Himalayas and the Deccan. Continued rapid erosion of the Himalayas added to the sediment accumulation, which was subsequently carried by mountain streams to fill the subsidence zone and cause it to sink more.
North of the Himalayas are the and various Trans-Himalayan ranges, only a small part of which, in the region of state in the Indian-administered portion of Kashmir , are within the territorial limits of India. This should inspire dread in the most stolid of hearts — not only in India but across the world. The divisions were there for all to see at the round table conference of 1931. Nor will I if I can help it allow Congress to accept it. The partition of Africa into arbitrary boundaries by colonialpowers were a series of catastrophes.
Third, the Khilafat movement received only lukewarm support from the elite Muslim leadership such as Mohammed Ali Jinnah who assessed correctly that the agitation in India was unlikely to affect the geopolitics of the Middle East. Jinnah realized that staying out of the cabinet would be a tactical error as it would give the Congress a free reign over policies at a time when the British were seriously contemplating a transfer of power. First, even though a minority according to the 1971 census, 11. The aggressiveness of the Arya Samaj fostered a sense of fear among the Muslims. In the second group were the Aligarh trained would-be bureaucrats whose career goal was to secure employment in the administrative machinery of the British Raj. Not since the 1947 partition of India have so many people been killed and uprooted as a result of ethnic or communal violence.
Events moved at a torrid pace thereafter. The situation in 1946 was different. Britain had conquered the huge subcontinent playing off one power center against another. Also in Jammu and Kashmir is the , which, extending along the southwest of the Great Himalayas, forms the western and southern flanks of the Vale of Kashmir. Crack British army units were called out.
The landless, mostly Untouchables and low caste Hindus and Sikhs, have also become politicized by the leftist Agricultural Labor Union. Two nations inherited the Raj and were immediately locked in mortal combat. Muslims and Hindus were constantly in quarrels, and a plan was proposed to the British. Did Gandhi, Nehru, Jinnah, Patel consider the consequences of partition for the minorities on both sides of the border? Jinnah, who was a constructive constitutionalist, desired an orderly transfer of power to India and had no use for the disruptive politics of the Khilafat movement or the non-cooperation movement of Gandhi. The exact boundary between the two states would be determined by a commission sponsored by the British government.
Before, during and after the partition process, sectarian groups targeted one another in the affected areas. In retribution, the British packed up hundreds of Malabar Muslims in freight trains, like canned sardines, and sent them to far off jails. It began originally as a joint venture with the Dutch East India Company. At the same-time Winston Churchill was very much hopeful to see India divided into three parts — Hindustan, Pakistan and Princestan. Meanwhile, the Indian National Congress, a political organization and party established in 1885, worked to secure greater autonomy from the British Raj. Schools and colleges are founded. On the other side, they would become refugees — penniless, homeless strangers in a strange land.
Negative Effects The British held almost all political and economic power and set restrictions on Indian owned industries. Hold over government, struggle for jobs, land scarcity, and population influx have thus intensified the historical differences between Assamese and Bengali into violent ethnic antagonisms in Assam. Many were killed by members of other communities and sometimes their own families, as well as by the contagious diseases which swept through. But his warnings were not heeded either by the Congress or the Muslim leadership. This was dramatically revealed on the 16 August 1946, when Jinnah called for a 'Direct Action Day' by followers of the League in support of the demand for Pakistan. The principal figures involved have acquired an iconic status in India and Pakistan.