This time is referred to as the achromatic point. Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same or a very similar surface area. The Effects of Enzyme Quantities So, if a little works, is more better? Smaller keys, larger keys, or incorrectly positioned teeth on keys incorrectly shaped or sized substrate molecules do not fit into the lock enzyme. Groups of three could work to collect results for 5 different concentrations and rotate the roles of apparatus manipulator, result reader and scribe. In this experiment I exposed the liver samples in three different temperature environments: 3°c, 22°c, and 75°c. A water bath is set up.
Enzymes are basically proteins, which have specific shapes for different substrates. I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance and indeed all the equipment I use so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and identify this in my conclusion. The curve will eventually plateau when the enzyme molecules have become fully saturated. This heat energy is transferred to the environment. Add 2cm3 of yeast to one test tube. This presents me with new limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. At a certain point the temperature will become too great and the enzyme will loose its shape and no longer be able to function.
If collecting the gas over water is complicated, and you have access to a 100 cm 3 gas syringe, you could collect the gas in that instead. Hydrogen Peroxide is the poisonous by-product of metabolism. Increasing the Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration after the point of saturation has been reached will not cause the rate of reaction to go up any more. If you double the concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide then the rate of reaction doubles as well. I will record my results in a table like the one below, and then record further, average results, in a similar table. This enabled me to find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. Enzymes are organic catalysts that can affect the rate of a chemical reaction depending on the pH level and the concentration of the enzyme.
Variables Independent: enzyme concentration Dependent: rate of enzyme activity Constants: catalase potato Control: no enzyme Procedure 1. This is shown by the gradient of the graph going down. Students may notice the heat if they put their hands on the conical flask. However, in reality it is impossible to keep all the variables precisely the same. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3, so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide and 10cm 3 water. Enzymes belong to the proteins category because enzymes are long chains of amino acids bound together by peptide bonds. This will stop the enzyme from being able to bond to a specific substrate molecule.
Conclusion This experiment proved that as the substrate concentration increases, the enzyme activity will also increases too. This is because at higher concentration there are more molecules of substrate, so more collisions take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. This amount suited the experiment. This question is connected to my project because I want to see if the enzyme change how would the activity change too. Background Information What is enzyme? Research Question What is the effect of the concentration of a hydrogen peroxide solution on catalase activity? Because of this, it is very important to ensure a constant temperature is maintained.
One of its functions is to break down Hydrogen Peroxide, a compound almost the same as water, containing Hydrogen 2 atoms and Oxygen 2 atoms. For example: a There is a slight delay between pouring the Hydrogen Peroxide into the yeast, putting the bung on and starting the stopwatch. Pour the hydrogen peroxide solution into the test tube containing the yeast and immediately put the gas syringe bung on the end of the test tube, at the same time start the stopwatch. In my table of results there is a pattern that reinforces my conclusion as to why it is proven that the higher concentration the increased reaction rate. They are used to speed up specific reactions in the cells. The problem of the delay between pouring in the Hydrogen Peroxide, bunging the test tube and starting the stopwatch could have been limited by getting another person to start the stopwatch when the hydrogen peroxide was poured into the tube. Because each yeast granule has a different surface area, the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule.
When the concentration is doubled from 8-16% the rate goes up from 1. Place 10 ml of H 2O 2 into a new beaker. Introduction This is an A-level biology project. Materials Starch solution, sodium chloride solution, amylase solution, iodine solution Apparatus Test tubes, droppers, white tile, stopwatch, water bath controller Procedure 1. Substrate concentration testing showed that as when the substrate increased, the activity of the enzyme also increased. Each enzyme has a temperature range in which a maximal rate of reaction is achieved.
Using more concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide would have produced a better looking graph and I would have liked to use concentrations higher than 20% to extend the graph so that the maximum possible rate of reaction could be reached. Reference any text on Michaelis Menten Kinetics to see the derivation. As a result of my preliminary work, I have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant. For example, three repeats with the 100% concentrated solution yielded 48cm 3, 49cm 3 and 48cm 3 of oxygen, respectively. This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a kinetic energy greater than that of the activation energy.
The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase is regarded as involving two reactions, namely, the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is a maximum at the optimum pH 6. I felt that this would give me more reliable results in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is reduced. Repeat all the tests at least three times so that an average can be obtained. Dependent Variable The dependent variable are the values, which depend of the independent variable. However, there are some factors that I must take into consideration. This is due to the less and less frequent random encounters between substrate and enzyme.