All evening classes and activities are canceled. But, at base, history shows us that a language becomes a global language mainly due to the political power of its native speakers, and the economic power with which it is able to maintain and expand its position. The global spread of English over the last 50 years is remarkable. In Cameroon and Canada, English shares this status with French; and in the Nigerian states, English and the main local language are official. In Denison, David; Hogg, Richard M. Negation is done with the adverb not, which precedes the main verb and follows an auxiliary verb. It is one of six official languages of the United Nations.
Other changes affecting the phonology of local varieties are processes such as , , and reduction of consonant clusters. They are semantically divided into names and common nouns. The standard orthography of English is the most widely used writing system in the world. Bengali is written in the Bengali alphabet, sometimes known as Eastern Nagari or Bengali-Assamese script. It originated on the Arabian peninsula, and has since spread all across the Middle East and North Africa.
Archived from on 2 April 2015. We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings. In a second language, research has found that speakers are also likely to be and show less empathy and consideration for the emotional state of others. The legacy of British imperialism has left many counties with the language thoroughly institutionalized in their courts, parliament, civil service, schools and higher education establishments. But the Americans also invented many new words to describe landscapes, wildlife, vegetation, food and lifestyles.
There are roughly 6,500 languages in spoken in the world today. As with most of the Commonwealth, British English is the model on which, for instance, Indian English or Nigerian English is based. It's related to Tibetan script. Conversely, there is also some evidence that the very threat of subjugation by a dominant language can actually galvanize and strengthen movements to support and protect minority languages e. The corresponds to the Old English , and the is used both in the sense of the previous in the role of patient, or direct object of a transitive verb , and in the sense of the Old English dative case in the role of a recipient or of a transitive verb. Which country boasts the most English speakers, or people learning to speak English? Italian is relevant in countries affected by the and in former colonies and occupied territories of the. And even many French agree that their language is just a headache to fully grasp, even for themselves.
Phonology Main article: The and of the English language differ from one dialect to another, usually without interfering with mutual communication. It has been estimated that 84% of English spellings conform to general patterns or rules, while only 3% are completely unpredictable 3% of a very large vocabulary is, however, still quite a large number, and this includes such extraordinary examples as colonel, ache, eight, etc. Flemming, Edward; Johnson, Stephanie 2007. Countries that were taken over by other countries didn't lose their identity. It is time to go to bed.
Its many would-be have traced it variously to Cockney, French, Finnish, German, Greek, Norwegian, Scots, several African languages, and the Native American language Choctaw, as well as a number of personal names. Lehmann, Ans van Kemenade, John Ole Askedal, Erik Andersson, Neil Jacobs, Silke Van Ness, and Suzanne Romaine. Discourse markers are often the first constituents in sentences. On balance, though, the intrinsic appeal of English as a world language is probably overblown and specious, and largely based on chauvinism or naïveté. Hausa Number of native speakers: 85 million Number of non-natives: 65 million Total number of speakers: 150 million Language family: Chadic, a sub-family of Afroasiatic Related to: Ron, Bole.
Carr, Philip; Honeybone, Patrick 2007. They are formed by using the past participle either with the auxiliary verb to be or to get, although not all varieties of English allow the use of passives with get. Stressed syllables are pronounced longer and louder than unstressed syllables, and vowels in unstressed syllables are frequently while vowels in stressed syllables are not. English as a World Language. Today, Portuguese is an official language in nine countries, as well as in the Chinese territory of Macau. Speaking of your example with the interesting little book — both examples are actually correct! This has led some scholars to develop the study of English as an auxiliary language. There are more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers.
English began to rise in prestige, relative to Norman French, during the reign of. They will usually study for more than three hours a week studying English Advice for you, 2010. The department's programs seek to help students express themselves effectively; develop a respect for and an understanding of their own and other languages; appreciate and profit from a study of our global literary heritage; increase their awareness of and empathy for diverse peoples and cultures; discover the relevance of ideas and values found in their reading; and learn to think critically and evaluate wisely. English has undergone many , some of them affecting all varieties, and others affecting only a few. More distantly: Arabic, Somali Name in the language itself: Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa Hausa just barely missed inclusion in the above list. Many varieties also use a near future constructed with the phrasal verb be going to. Unfortunately, the best way to achieve near-native foreign language proficiency is through immersion, by visiting other countries and interacting with local speakers of the language.
Now, do-support with the verb have is becoming increasingly standardised. Many natural languages have been proffered as candidates for a global. Related to: French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian Name in the language itself: português Portuguese developed from Latin and is closely related to modern Spanish. Following the extensive influence of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from the 17th to mid-20th centuries through the British Empire, it has been widely propagated around the world. Related to: Hindustani, Bengali, Marathi, Kashmiri, Nepali Name in the language itself: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ or پنجابی panjabi Punjabi is named for the , a region in northern India and Eastern Pakistan.
Estimates of the number of English speakers who are and foreign-language speakers vary greatly from 470 million to more than 1,000 million depending on how proficiency is defined. English was taught as an additional subject within the school curriculum. He says Chinese, Arabic and Spanish are also going to be key international languages. In time, human population created a means of communication. Let me know in the comments section below! Imagine, for example, a Chinese speaker who speaks no French in conversation with a French speaker who speaks no Chinese. A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of occupations and professions such as medicine and computing.