Thus, a black Dominican and an African American would be of the same race, but not of the same ethnicity. Thus, Hausa ethnic identity is a complex of variables involving not only language but also religion and even descent. This is the because the legitimacy of the modern state is linked to its capacity to present itself as a provider of necessary public goods and more important, a neutral arbiter arbiter that guarantees the security of all sections of society. Ethnic violence has been witnessed in almost all regions in the country but with particular frequency in the Niger Delta, the Muslim North and Northwest, and along the middle-belt Uzodike and Whetho 2011:220. Since the restoration of democratic rule, ethnic identity and mobilisation in the Nigerian political landscape has often resulted in political instability and constant conflicts. This is worrisome because internal security crisis is inherent with tendencies that threaten national unity and the peace of the state.
Top-level religious leaders have preached peace and tolerance, but the message does not trickle down fully. The people who were tantalised by the 1768 Words 8 Pages was seen to be the best platform for settling scores between the two ethnic groups. Historically, identities have played a significant role in the Nigerian political process during the colonial period and in the post-colonial era. A number of uprisings and concomitant mayhem have been reported since 1999 and have resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and the destruction of property. But now, the army seems divided. Yet, upon closer examination, the two systems can co-exist better if policy makers think through the matters in a systematic manner Housea, P.
Kaduna, where the current ethnic clashes are taking place, is the home of many retired army generals. Conclusions: Sexual dimorphism of nasal biometrics exists between sexes of Hausas and Yorubas. Make a careful study of people under dictatorship, and invariably you will observe that it marks a period of internal retreat into cultural identities …. With over 400 ethnic groups, distributed among the two major religions Christianity and Islam , Nigeria since independence, has produced a catalogue of ethno religious conflicts that resulted in an estimated loss of over three million. Identity has been a significant aspect of the Nigerian political process, during the colonial period and in the post-colonial era. Society plays a huge role in defining these terms.
Amadi 1980 Religion and stability in Nigeria since independence: The first 25 years, Vol. You argue… More about Ethno Religious Crisis in Nigeria: Causes and Remedy. With different development plans by the government towards sustaining the nation, little or no results seem to be forthcoming because Nigeria is continuously weighed-down by ethnoreligious burdens. Military Coups of 1966 The military coups of 1966 set in motion a series of ethnic pogroms against the Igbo. Population shifts and heterogeneous values; and e. These culminated into the thirty months atrocious civil war in which the Igbo ethnic group was the victim.
Recent studies on religious identity have also underscored the positive function of religion in promotion of peace. The paper through deductive approach from literature review, and descriptive analysis, examined the various ethno-religious violence from post-independence Nigeria and its implications on the housing sector. An example is that of complains by Christians about the Arabic inscriptions in the Nigerian currency, while on the other hand the Muslims too complain about Friday not being work-free day just like their Christian counterparts enjoy Sundays as work free day. For this reason, corruption is seen as one of the most important issues that has to be resolved in order to cope with ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria. One result was that the difference between the Hausa-Fulani and the Kaje or Kataf in the North was in time no longer simply that one group was Hausa-Fulani and the other was Kaje or Kataf. In other words, in many instances, religion provides a mobilisation frame for conflict and this effect is amplified when religious and ethnic cleavages run parallel.
The religious conflict in Nigeria symposium, session 2. An introduction to the History of the spread of Islam, Lagos, Islamic Publication Bureau. This population disproportion when combined with the disparities in the political influence of individual ethnic groups roughly classifies the Nigerian population into two major groupings: the majority and minority ethnic groups. Contemporary religious dynamics in Nigeria. The city managed to stay calm during the 2011 elections, but political elites in Jos and Abuja will need to tackle the Jos crisis.
Nigeria is the largest black nation however, what exists mostly is mutual suspicion and lack of cordiality among various ethnic components. In spite of various remedies proposed and tried, ethno-religious conflicts have not only remained a recurring feature of the regions socio-political scene, but it has in recent times assumed a frightening dimension as exemplified in the recent anti-Miss World Pageant outburst and the attendant destruction of lives and properties in various parts of the region. Findings revealed that the importance of houses in African settings is beyond mere shelter, but are sacred and generational assets worth bequeathing. The Holy Bible: Authorized King James Version, U. Tishkov eds Tokyo, United Nations University Press. Thus, it is common for the people to engage in some kind of craft or trade during the dry season. In the same vein application of ecclesial law should be encourage.
It concerns the right of each group to be treated equally with all the others, for their members to be secure in their lives and property, from arbitrary arrest and punishment, and for them to enjoy equal opportunity in trade, business, employment, schooling and enjoyment of social amenities Nnoli, 1989:206. Despite some exceptions, such as the Yoruba being made up of both Christian and Muslim segments, ethnic identities generally overlap with religious identities in Nigeria. This paper attempts to draw explanations on why ethno-religious conflicts have become a permanent feature of Nigeria. This indicates that one out of every four Nigerian lives in the area. Of course, there is much ethno-religious conflict in Nigeria, not only in the North and in the Delta, but also in the Middle Belt. The last occasion when the army was called out to quell ethnic clashes was in the Niger Delta area in November 1999 when hundreds died at the hands of the troops. It thus fosters and grows on the common conscious ness of being one in relation to others.
However, the territorial control of the group has been removed by the Nigerian army in 2015. Obasanjo has sacked over 150 officers who held political office since 1984. This appears to legalise the application of coercion and violence as tools for social change and for the achievement of anticipated desires and objectives Kura 2010:37. Indeed, all the inter-religious violence that took place in the North-West zone, the Sharia inspired conflicts inclusive, could be subjected to ethno-religious interpretations. Nigerian scholars have elaborated the problem of indigene rights in several publications. Height, body weight and cephalometric parameters evaluated on three-dimensional facial photographs were measured on subjects. This triggered the series of conflicts that occurred between August and November 1960 marked by large-scale arson and wanton murder.
Islam is the dominant religion in the North-West particularly among the Fulani, Hausas, Zabarmawas and Dandawas. More recent examples are the Jos crises and the current conflict by Boko Haram against Christians and moderate Muslims. Attitudes towards democracy and markets in Nigeria: Report of a national opinion survey, January-February 2000. In the paper, causes of these crises are discussed and some suggestions are provided which if properly implemented will serve as remedies to both ethnic and religious crisis in the nation. Some Kataf, women who went to the site for market activities on 6 February, 1992, were harassed and assaulted by members of the Hausa community in Zango town. Issues that raise the most dust are those regarded essential for the existence and the validity of the state. There is a considerable population of Muslims in the South, especially in the Southwest, and a sizeable number amongst the Benin in Edo State.