We recognize people from this stage through their eager questioning of others. They do not normally adopt many of these behaviors for themselves nor necessarily adjust their own behaviors to be more culturally sensitive, but they have a more tolerant and sympathetic attitude. Defense Defense against cultural difference indicates an experience in which cultural difference is perceived in stereotyped and polarized ways. Merton, Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski. As we move from Acceptance into the next stage, Adaptation, the focus shifts to developing the concrete skills that allow us to genuinely shift from our own default cultural point of reference to a point of reference based in another culture. Adaptation Adaptation to cultural difference indicates the experience of generating appropriate alternative behavior in a different cultural context. Milton Bennett has been recognized for his Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity.
Mistrust of provider's abilities b. Peace Corps World Wise Schools Teaching About Culture Culture Matters Workbook Chapter 4 Attitudes Toward Cultural Difference: From Ethnocentrism to Ethnorelativism In this activity you look at another aspect of adjustment: attitudes toward cultural difference. People are disinterested or perhaps even hostilely dismissive of intercultural communication. Difference is a fact of life. Denial A denial of difference is the purest form of ethnocentrism.
Whenever you hear someone making fun of the way a foreigner speaks English, just remember that it's the foreigner, not the person laughing at him, who actually can speak a foreign language. Unfamiliarity with services available c. A more tenacious form of denigration combines negative stereotyping of different groups with a rationale for their inherent inferiority Nazis, Ku Klux Klan. A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. Once integrated, people can effortlessly and even unconsciously shift between worldviews and cultural frames of reference. Ethnocentrism: A simple way to conceive of the three stages of ethnocentrism is in terms of attitudes toward cultural differences: those in the denial stage deny the existence of cultural differences, those in the defense stage demonize them, and those in the minimization stage trivialize differences.
Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. Acceptance Acceptance of cultural difference indicates an experience in which one's own culture is experienced as just one of a number of equally complex worldviews. However, Minimization obscures deep cultural differences, including the masking of dominant culture privilege by a false assumption of equal opportunity. In other words, each individual or group has a uniquely complex experience of cultural difference that is nevertheless characterized by one of the following developmental positions. As your awareness of culture increases, your attitude toward cultural difference likewise evolves.
Minority status What is a common pitfall of agencies in the cultural blindness stage on the cultural competence continuum? Defence battle against difference progresses through three forms: Denigrations, Superiority, and reversal. Failing to provide an unbiased service What unique activities do agencies in the cultural proficiency stage of the cultural competence continuum undertake? The development of empathy with the other culture as well as the ability to communicate interculturally Ethnorelativism is a belief based on deep and heart-felt respect for other cultures that all groups, cultures, or subcultures are inherently equal. Two forms of Integration are Contextual Evaluation and Constructive Marginality. New skills appropriate to a different worldview are acquired in an additive process. Developmental Strategies Developmental movement out of defence is facilitated by emphasising the commonality of cultures, particularly in terms of what is good in all cultures. They do not yet adapt their own behavior to the cultural context, but they no longer see other cultures as threatening, wrong, or inferior. Family definitions are consistent throughout minority ethnic groups d.
Generally, people in this stage have had limited contact with people different from themselves and thus have no experiential basis for believing in other cultures. People at this position accept the existence of culturally different ways of organizing human existence, although they do not necessarily like or agree with every way. Acceptance - grasping the importance of cultural difference, a new way of seeing the world. This liminality can be used to construct cultural bridges and to conduct sophisticated cross-cultural mediation. The psychologies of difference, ethnicity, race, and power Due to the nature of power and the helping relationship, which of the following is most accurate? Milton Bennett 1986, 1993, 2004, 2013 as a framework to explain how people experience and engage cultural difference. The lack of understanding of cultural definitions of health and illness c. It is more likely to emotionally impact the provider b.
First among these, in most cases, are opportunities for study abroad. Things like this, as well as political discussions or lectures, serve as a way of simple recognition of difference. And finally, by focusing on the additive nature of intercultural sensitivity, Bennett gives us a way out of zero-sum ways of thinking about culture. It is not so important that the empathic statement was correct; what is important is that it acknowledged and respected possible cultural difference. Ethnorelativism: Acceptance: In this first stage of ethnorelativism, people begin to recognize other cultures and accept them as viable alternatives to their own worldview.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations 10, no. Defense: Those in the defense stage are no longer blissfully ignorant of other cultures; they recognize the existence of other cultures, but not their validity. Once you have progressed to an ethnorelativistic view of cultural differences, you will in essence be bicultural. We have more arrows in our quiver, more tools in our toolbox. Advocacy and research related to multiculturalism in the healthcare system Which of the following does not describe the differences experienced in working with culturally diverse clients? Anything less than this shift in experience risks ethnocentrism. Peace Corps volunteer in Micronesia from 1968-1970, and returned to complete his doctorate in intercultural communication and sociology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. If culture is a process — something that we all engage in — then we can hope to continue learning and developing.