This essay has been taken to be the opening gun in the intellectual movement that gave rise to the New History of and others Barnes 1925, p. Spencer interpreted as a living, growing organism which, as it becomes more complex, must self-consciously understand and control the mechanisms of its own success. For a careful study of Spencer's impact upon American intellectual history see , in American Thought 1944; rev. Crime is the continual breaking out of the old unadapted nature -- the index of a character unfitted to its conditions -- and only as fast as the unfitness diminishes can crime diminish. Both organic and social aggregates are characterised by Spencer according to progressive increases in size. His Principles of Biology was a standard text at Oxford.
Timasheff is of the view that merely on the ground of systematic similarity, society cannot be considered an organism. He also argued that representative government and the democratic state resulted from an increased concentration of people in towns, from the rise of artisan and merchant classes, and from expanding production and commerce ibid. The organs of alimentation are vital in an organism so are in the society. He is famous for his 'Organic Analogy'. Article shared by Spencer is popularly known for his treatment of the organic analogy. Herbert Spencer Organic Analogy Organic Analogy was one of his important work it was also shared with Comte and Durkheim. These views were set forth at length in Social Statics 1850 and The Man Versus the State 1884.
An Increase in the Complexity of Structure: As both society and organisms grow in size they also increase in complexity of structure. For a few years, until 1841, he practiced the profession of civil engineer as an employee of the London and Birmingham Railway. The remains of his personal papers seemingly only a small part are at the Athenaeum London. Spencer was the son of a Derbyshire schoolteacher of radical and dissenting views. In view of this mechanistic attitude it is not surprising that Spencer should have perceived and expressed the fundamental importance of energy to the evolution of culture. It is said that these two have a different process of birth, development, and death and it is waste of time to compare these two. Functions of the parts of society such as institutions often get changed.
He established the hypothesis that society is like a biological organism and then proceeded to defend it against all objections with great logical force. Spencer's name was associated with the birth of sociology in England. But he was very definitely taken a prisoner by the ghost he had evoked. In this, he has seen society as an organism. The second system is the sustaining system. The progressive differentiation of structure in both is accompanied by progressive differentiation of functions.
Many of his essays were reprinted in his Essays, Scientific, Political, and Speculative, 3 vols. He also maintained that it was not the personal initiative of Cleisthenes that brought about democratic organization in Athens, but rather that his political reorganization was prompted by, and was successful only because of, the large number of non-clan-organized persons living in that city at the time ibid. In animals, that would be the veins and arteries. The differences between society and living organisms are well rehearsed, but it is the ability to handle the problems of social and the limits beyond which the plasticity of society cannot go, which both Spencer and Durkheim were unable to explain. Spencer as a champion of the philosophy of individualism very strongly felt that the state and society exist for the good of the individual and not vice versa. Spencer was very much impressed with the importance of war in the development of complex societies, and in fact this is one of the recurring themes of Principles of Sociology.
To understand their uniqueness we need to see them as a whole. If all structures are functioning correctly, then society runs smoothly. Spencer also appreciated the importance of economic factors in the origin and development of customs and institutions. Spencer never abandoned his belief in the inheritance of , a theory which, while essentially biological, also affected his social theory. He limited knowledge to phenomena, i. Further Reading By far the best source on Spencer's life, education, and the development of his major ideas is his own An Autobiography 2 vols.
A society need not die. Osnabrück Germany : Zeller, 1966-1967. Spencer was a self-thought man and hence his learning was highly selective. New York: DeWitt Revolving Fund. Anthropologists have come to accept cultural evolution as a fact and to see it as a process of increasing structural differentiation and functional specialization, the very terms in which Spencer first portrayed it more than a century ago. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 3:165-192.
In The Principles of Biology 2 vol. The organic analogy was used by thinkers in their discussions even prior to Spencer. He died at Brighton on Dec. Duncan, Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer London, 1908. It is abstract and exists in our mind only in the form of an idea. In society, each part has a different center controller and in the living organism, we have one specified centralization of consciousness.
Comparing these two components is not acceptable as they believed society is conceptual and living organism is in visible form. Spencer declined, however, feeling himself unfit for a university career. Spencer is popularly known for his treatment of evolution. The indispensable work is D. From an early age Spencer demonstrated a marked inclination toward science, and especially toward scientific generalization. He, however, presented the organic analogy, a secondary doctrine which also played a vital role in his thought system.