You just cannot cite a novel as historical evidence. Within those limits, do your best to provide the information needed for your readers to find the source you used, and order the information from the specific to the general. For the Koran, provide sura and verse i. Neely, Fate of Liberty, 21. Among the protagonists of this story are Athanasius Kircher, who built numerous documents into his spectacularly speculative treatises on ancient Egypt and China; Pierre Bayle, who made the footnote a powerful tool in philosophical and historical polemics; and Edward Gibbon, who transformed it into a high form of literary artistry. The wholesale recovery of classical traditions in every field including medicine, mathematics, and astronomy from Islam and the Byzantine world led to an explosion of scholarship. In The Devil's Details, Chuck Zerby playfully explores footnotes' long and illustrious history and makes a clarion call to save them from the new world of the Internet and hypertext.
Encyclopedias and other reference books 14. I finished this one because it's so damn alien. But what about the war beyond the irreverently-nicknamed trenches? John Locke, The Second Treatise on Government 1690 , excerpted, Hanover College History Department, accessed 24 Oct. But I thought it was note-worthy and maybe even important, so I assigned it to the small type at the bottom of the page. On one side of the citation spectrum you've got direct quotations-material typed word-for-word from the source text-that should always list the source. Olaf Press, 2010 , 115.
When the author of an article is unknown, begin with the article title. Work in an anthology 23. These footnotes span several pages and often overtake the main plotline, and add to the absurdist tone of the book. Their dominance of eighteenth- and nineteenth- century literature and scholarship was both hard-won -- following many years of struggle -- and doomed, as it led to belittlement in the twentieth century. Encyclopedias and other reference books With rare exceptions, print encyclopedias and other reference books follow the models already provided for citing books. He asks questions such as: What are the differ This book does for footnotes what Lynne Truss did for punctuation, what John Pollack did for puns, and what Simon Garfield did for fonts.
Scientific discoveries and debates were cause for anxiety, as well as excitement. What followed was a stunning spread of the mango throughout China. Small's information is as follows: Ph. That was a good one! This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Include signal phrases to explain relationships between sources. More on what footnotes are and how they work.
If you wish to refer to a source that the source you are consulting quotes, provide as much information as is available about the quoted source, and also provide the relevant information for the item in which it appears. I figured that her job depends on the reliability of the research backing each of her books. Join Elizabeth as she and a descendant of the Edmonson family discuss the role of these young women in not only the escape but also the abolition movement and Reconstruction. Articles and other short works print format Article in a scholarly journal 18. Use shortened citations for subsequent uses of the source.
Book, edited with an author 7. Muse fan, Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre, St. Unfortunately I have not been able to find this lecture in Australian libraries or online. Unlike the footnote reference, the surname is shown first, set off from the rest of the information. Even the audio book has solved the problem of how to convey footnotes. Wallace uses footnotes, endnotes, and in-text notes in much of his other writing as well.
Printed Sources Books print format Book print 1. Use those models for reference works available online only if they appear exactly as they did in print i. In documents like , many different symbols, letters and numbers may be used to refer the reader to particular notes. My guess is that Menocal was probably told by her publisher that the general reader does not like footnotes. Your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages Minneapolis: St. Tonino Guerra, Abandoned Places, trans.
In others, superscript numbers are preferred. John Hayes New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001 , 5. Each footnote has its own number, even if it is citing the same source as a previous footnote. Unlike practitioners of other fields such as engineering or the natural sciences, historians pose questions that rarely have definitive answers or solutions. There, your citation tells her that you learned about Taft's visit by reading his diary, and you give her all the information she needs to find a copy of the diary to read herself.
Or type the number on the same line; follow it with a period, two spaces, and the note. What I want to know is where is the evidence that the general reader is turned off reading books with endnotes or even footnotes? Book, with four or more authors 4. But she would not eat grapes, nor was she fond of raisins. General facts such as dates and names don't require citations. Subsequent lines start at the left margin. Book, with two or three authors 3. Use this model for articles that originally appeared in print but that you found reformatted online.