تولستوي يرى أنها نظرية خاطئة. In the early times, the value of art is dictated by institutions that set our moral and ethical norms. He presented various arguments that disprove this claim. No, the bass is not quite loud enough. Viewing it in this way we cannot fail to observe that art is one of the means of intercourse between man and man.
ويا له من كلام بديع. They propose that art to be banished so that the attitude and understanding of all people will be influenced by the inappropriate information. I hate the person before you spit on him, therefore your action did not cause my emotion. To get at the actual meaning of this passage, it is necessary to focus attention on the subject matter of the communications described rather than on the medium of communication. Not only did he critique the decadent arts of his time as might be expected from a very old, very religious man ; he also attacked Goethe, Beethoven, Michelangelo, and many other traditional artists. Tolstoy begins the book by attacking specialization in the arts. Thus did the Hebrew prophets and the ancient Christians regard art; thus it was, and still is, understood by the Mohammedans, and thus it still is understood by religious folk among our own peasantry.
All can be summed up in a word - sincerity. So the rules must be continually reborn, and the artist is forever exploring the unknown. وكان لي معه قبلها؛ الحرب والسلام، أنا كارنينا، موت إيفان إيلييتش، حكم النبي محمد. The Futurists wrote the bible of this religion and the avant garde has followed it scrupulously ever since. One might expect such a preface to Mein Kampf, but here such heat is surprising.
Tolstoy's closest approach to a definition of religious perception in What Is Art? If art is something important, then it is universally accessible. Viewed in this way, we see that art is one of the means of communication between man and man. Artists, themselves, achieved a level of notoriety and were often guests of the aristocracy. See, for example, the introduction to Criticism: The Foundations of Modern Literary Judgement, revised, Mark Schorer, Josephine Miles, and Gordon McKenzie , eds. Again, this is where I disagree, and where most people who enjoy the arts would disagree. Tolstoy does refine his definition a bit in Chapter 15, but not in answer to his critiques of Hauptmann and Wagner.
During this movement the artists were trying to use their artwork as a tool of expression toward life. This depends on three things: 1. His critics did not and could not—they had not been where he had gone. Religions are the exponents of the highest comprehension of life accessible to the best and foremost men at a given time in a given society — a comprehension toward which, inevitably and irresistibly, all the rest of that society must advance. It is all artistic activity.
در اواخر کتاب، می توان بیزاری نویسنده را از جریان های حاضر در عصر خود حدس زد، و آرزوهایی که به شکل ترسیم نوعی اوتوپیای ادبی- هنری در ذهن وی شکل گرفته را مطالعه نمود. Is it unreasonably narrow, exclusive, arbitrary, illogical, or disunified in itself or has it been discredited only by its association with the moral component? هذه المفاهيم الثلاثة لا يمكن لها أن تنفصل عن بعضها البعض تقترب من أن تكون متلازمة وتطرح من خلالها أسئلة بإستمرار حول مدى علاقة الفن بالإخلاق، وطبيعة الجمال في الفن، ودور الجمال في تكوين الفنون ونسبة إستحواذها على معنى الفن وإدراك المغزى م ماهو الفن؟ مخاطرة كبيرة أن يسأل المرء هذا السؤال، ناهيك عن مناقشته وتحليله في إطار تاريخي تطوري وكذلك من خلال جوهره كمادة دسمة يقبع تحت عباءتها كمٌ هائل من التعريفات والفروع والخلافات والأهداف والأساليب المتبعة في تشكل المعنى الواضح للفن. I agree also with Tolstoy that emotional resonance is more important than the superficial beauty of a work. الفن الذي يصل الجمهور و يضحكه و يبكيه و يحركه كما يحرك الفنان أمامهم هو الفن البديع. If you find any joy and value in what I do, please consider becoming a Sustaining Patron with a recurring monthly donation of your choosing, between a cup of tea and a good lunch. Tolstoy comes closest to losing me as an ally when he suggests that forbidding art, a la Plato, may be the only religious solution. ومن هذه النقطة يقدم لنا تولستوي دليلاً مبسطاً نتعرف من خلاله على الفن الجيد وهو أن يتسم بميزات معينة: الصدق، الفردية والوضوح.
Tolstoy already gives us a hint how to solve this very early on in the book, since he explicitly says that the audience comes to feel the same thing the artist does. But Tolstoy disputed this as lacking the communion with the audience Wartenberg 106. إنما عليه أن يجد طريقة لنفسه كي ينأى عنها كل ذلك الزيف والخداع والفجور والكذب الذي يدعونه فناً —المقصود هنا هو الفن المزيف أو الرديء-. Art had always defined a culture to the outside world. This communication is successful only if the audience feels the emotion.
Being right, in the context art, is still highly objective and less objective than he thinks. And this same sincerity will impel the artist to find a clear expression of the feeling which he wishes to transmit. وهو الفن الذي يكون من أجل الثمن لا من أجل القيم والأحاسيس التي تحدث عنها تولستوي. How indeed could it be otherwise, so long as art is still being created all around us, opening our eyes almost daily to new experiences and thus forcing us to adjust our sights? Tolstoy is clearly trying to force us to become more discerning judges of art, and the most poignant method of doing this is by attacking very famous works. When most of your readers are hostile readers, as Tolstoy himself predicted, this is not a very logical assumption to make. If the meaning of life is seen in freeing oneself from the yoke of animalism, as in Buddhism, then art which elevates the soul and humbles the flesh is good, whereas art exalting bodily passions would be bad. For one thing, the production of art requires work.